Ketoacidosis-One of the most important disorders associated with increased production of Ketone bodies

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Ketoacidosis

  • The most important disorder associated with the increased production of ketone bodies is Ketoacidosis, also known as Ketosis.

Ketoacidosis (Ketosis)

  • Ketoacidosis occurs in prolonged starvation or Uncontrolled Diabetes mellitus.
  • It is uncommon in NIDDM (Type II) but mostly occurs in IDDM (Type I).
  • Ketosis has 3 hallmarks:
  1. There are increased ketone bodies in the blood – Ketonemia.
  2. Increased Ketone bodies in the urine – Ketonuria.
  3. Acetone breath.

1. Ketonemia

  • Ketone bodies are acids.
  • When they are increased in the blood they lower the pH of the blood and cause acidosis.

2. Ketonuria

  • Ketone bodies are osmotic.
  • The increase level draws out water and cause Dehydration.

3. Acetone breath

  • Acetone cannot be used as a fuel in our body.
  • As it enters the blood it goes to the lungs.
  • Acetone is volatile so it is exhaled through the  lungs.
  • Its can be easily smelt in the breath of the patient as it has a characteristic fruity odour.
  • It is DIAGNOSTIC.

Clinical Presentation of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)

  • The clinical features of DKA include, but are not restricted to:
  1. Nausea
  2. Abdominal pain,
  3. Acetone breath,
  4. Kussmaul breathing pattern, and
  5. Generalized fatigue.
  • Despite underlying infection, some patients maintain normal body temperature or even hypothermia in DKA.

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