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- The most important disorder associated with the increased production of ketone bodies is Ketoacidosis, also known as Ketosis.
- Ketoacidosis occurs in prolonged starvation or Uncontrolled Diabetes mellitus.
- It is uncommon in NIDDM (Type II) but mostly occurs in IDDM (Type I).
- Ketosis has 3 hallmarks:
- There are increased ketone bodies in the blood – Ketonemia.
- Increased Ketone bodies in the urine – Ketonuria.
- Acetone breath.
- Ketone bodies are acids.
- When they are increased in the blood they lower the pH of the blood and cause acidosis.
- Ketone bodies are osmotic.
- The increase level draws out water and cause Dehydration.
3. Acetone breath
- Acetone cannot be used as a fuel in our body.
- As it enters the blood it goes to the lungs.
- Acetone is volatile so it is exhaled through the lungs.
- Its can be easily smelt in the breath of the patient as it has a characteristic fruity odour.
- It is DIAGNOSTIC.
Clinical Presentation of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
- The clinical features of DKA include, but are not restricted to:
- Abdominal pain,
- Acetone breath,
- Kussmaul breathing pattern, and
- Generalized fatigue.
- Despite underlying infection, some patients maintain normal body temperature or even hypothermia in DKA.
FOR COMPLETE LIST OF LESSONS PLEASE VISIT METABOLISM OF LIPIDS IN THE BIOCHEMISTRY II SECTION AND CLICK CURRICULUM. IT CAN BE ACCESSED FROM THE DROP DOWN LIST ON THE HOME PAGE OR JUST CLICK BIOCHEMISTRY II BUTTON AND THEN GO TO METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.